Sunday, May 24, 2020

Louisa May Alcott in My Contraband Essay - 1725 Words

Louisa May Alcott in My Contraband Louisa May Alcott is an American Novelist best known as the author of the novel â€Å"Little Women†. Louisa was born in November 1982, grew up in Germantown- Washington D.C and was known to be an abolitionist, feminist and also a naturalist. Being a naturalist meant that she believed that nothing existed beyond the natural earth i.e. no such thing as spirituality or the supernatural. Her family suffered from financial difficulties and so Alcott had to work to support her family in an early age. She penned the story â€Å"My Contraband† (1869) which was formerly known as â€Å"The Brothers† (1863). Contraband was a black slave who escaped to or was brought within union lines (Alcott 759). In â€Å"My Contraband†, Louisa†¦show more content†¦Half amazed; but I was satisfied, and said no more† (Alcott 769). The sad thing is he took Lucy away forcefully, but not because he loved her, he just wanted to be wicked to Robert. From every indication he did not need her or love her, but all he was interested in was destroying Robert’s life. More to that, there is one last wicked act Marster Ned commits at the end of the story: Robert’s friend narrates to Miss Dane how Robert died, he said Marster Ned and Robert went at each other at the war front and he saw Marster Ned get the sword straight through Robert (Alcott 771). From the quotes above, one can deduce that Marster Ned was a forceful and brutal beast. He did not care or have feelings for how the other party felt. This kind of treatment despite being horrible and brutal, depicts the actual social treatment towards minorities. Apart from just the antagonist’s behaviors, there is much passion in the text. Another characteristic the author uses to portray the racial discrimination during this era was Passion. The author uses passion to show that despite the treatment towards Robert he was no less of a human. Passion was as evident throughout our text as our narrator narrates both on her side and Robert’s. From her words â€Å"Feeling decidedly more interest in the black man than in the white, I glanced furtively at him as I scattered chloride of lime. I had seen much contraband, butShow MoreRelated`` My Contraband `` By Louisa May Alcott1850 Words   |  8 PagesLouisa May Alcott’s â€Å"My Contraband† explores the controversial aspects of gender roles, interracial relationships, sexual desires, and political imagination during the climax of the American Civil War. Alcott’s viewpoint and argument is framed by utilizing main characters that would have been considered stereotypically inferior peoples at the time: Faith Dane (a female nurse) and Robert (a mixed â€Å"mulatto† and freed slave). The author daringly challenges views held by a majority of the U.S. populationRead MoreLittle Women, By Louisa May Alcott866 Words   |  4 PagesLouisa May Alcott was born and raised in Massachusetts from a financially struggling family, which will soon change due to Louisa’s writing talents. Louisa was homeschooled the majority of her childhood, which sparked her writing career. Many of her life experiences influenced her writing but the main one, that got her started, was her father, Amos Bronson Alcott, a philosopher and teacher. As she grew older, she befriended abolitionists, she soon becomes a part of, which greatly influence her laterRead MoreWomen Of The Civil War1329 Words   |  6 Pageshardships. Women were forced to continue their work load while taking on the responsibilities of husbands, fathers, and sons. Union troops often took the male slaves leaving women and children to fend for themselves. Many were f orced to live in â€Å"contraband camps† that were overly crowded. Shelter was not sufficient, needed supplies were not available, and abuse was often experienced from the soldiers. Women and children were often given the opportunity to learn to read and write. In addition, schools

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Effect Of Using Narrative On Teaching Vocabulary

The Effect of Using Story in Teaching Vocabulary Introduction The effect of using story when teaching vocabulary incorporates as the best-approved evidence-based instructional strategy targeted at improving children ability to read and write. Vocabulary taught at kindergarten assists in improving the children ability to communicate effectively with peers and learn effectively. The strategy was developed to assist children in finding the necessary skills required for improving language ability as well as develop effective communication among children in the kindergarten. Additionally, word level skills such as word recognition and coding become possible because vocabulary taught allows the children to learn language abilities and attain high-level performance in equal measures across all the subjects(Graves, August, Mancilla, 2012). The language ability of children improves especially for native speakers because vocabularies learnt assist the children in establishing comprehension and well-writing abilities across all subjects. Comp rehension of various vocabularies becomes easy because the strategy establishes necessary skills among the children that give them the ability to analyze complex words and implement the same words in the relevant context. Therefore, it is vital for tutors to implement effective teaching vocabulary for kindergarten children, as approved evidence-based instructional strategy, because it improves communication and writingShow MoreRelatedLiteracy Views From An Individual And Class Perspective Essay1422 Words   |  6 PagesLiteracy Views from an Individual and Class Perspective Teaching and learning in the 21st century is not the same from the 19th and 20th century. â€Å"Teachers today face classrooms that are increasingly diverse, both culturally and linguistically,† (Goodwin, Lefkowits, Woempner, Hubbell, 2011). Educators must be creative and inventive in ways to influence students that are diverse as well as culturally linguistically in the areas of reading and writing. It is imperative that strategies and techniquesRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography1469 Words   |  6 Pagesdescribes an education reform the occurred at Dorp High School, a school which otherwise may have been closed due to poor academic performance. The schools leader, Deirdre DeAngelis, drastically reformed the school’s curriculum and teaching methodology. The faculty, using DeAngelis’ methods, achieved significant success in improving their student’s academic achievements. They did so by focusing on the fundamentals: analytical and structured writing. In t he article, Tyre describes the case of a studentRead MoreNarrative Text10129 Words   |  41 PagesUSING CARTOON MOVIE FOR DEVELOPING NINTH GRADERS’ WRITING SKILL OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT SMPN 1 DASUK A THESIS PROPOSAL Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree Of Sarjana Pendidikan in English By †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS SURABAYA STATES UNIVERSITY 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study 1.2 Reasons for Choosing the Topic 1.3 Statements of the Problem The Objectives of the Study The Significant ofRead MorePlay Is Our Brain s Favorite Way Of Learning1252 Words   |  6 Pagesgreatly be improved is their foreign language reading comprehension skills. Currently the language teaching methods used in classrooms have been the same for decades. Two popular teaching methods are the grammar translation and the cognitive code approach. In the grammar translation approach, students are directed to translate words from a foreign language to their own native language. In the other teaching method, the cognitive code approach, teachers primarily focus on grammar. Grammar is explainedRead MoreThe Link Between English Reading And Mathematics1686 Words   |  7 Pagestwo cultures (Arts and Science) stare at each other with mutual hostility and dislike†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ If this state of affairs was reflected in educational establishments of that time the likelihood of any meaning full cooperation between those engaging in the teaching of reading comprehension and mathematics would seem to be very remote indeed. Thankfully, changes in opinion did occur over time and by the 1990’s interest in children’s maths skills also led to an increase in research into the association betweenRead MoreOn Being The Target Of Discrimination By Ralph Ellison1486 Words   |  6 Pagesthe portions of his earliest days in the semi-autobiography â€Å"On Being the Target of Discrimination†, where he recalls the effects of racism had on his life. Though his chronological writing, he uses the timeline of his childhood as personal evidence of the effects of racism in the upbringing of an African American child in a Post-Reconstruction Era America. A creative narrative written in second-person, all his arguments are supported primarily through anecdotal examples that inspire emotions insteadRead MoreThe Competency Of The Educator2016 Words   |  9 Pagescomponents of literacy to students. Research on effective reading instruction suggests that students benefit when they learn concepts of print , phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2000). Moreover, reading instruction needs to be supported by effective teaching strategies that include modelled reading aloud, shared book reading, guided reading, and independent reading. The competency of the educator in the delivery and assessment of an effectiveRead MoreIcelt Methodology Assignment4022 Words   |  17 PagesICELT 2011 In Service Certificate in English Language Teaching British Council UVM Lomas Verdes METHODOLOGY ASSIGNMENT NO. 1 EVALUATION OF TEACHING Candidate: Elizabeth De la Barrera Blanor Candidate Number: ________________ Date: May 6, 2011 Grade: ______________ Marker: ____________________ Observations:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Read MoreAnalysis Of Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1450 Words   |  6 PagesReid Champlin Mrs. Stack AP English, Period 7 14 August 2015 In His Own Words: Analysis of The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass They say that one can never fully understand a situation until he/she is put into that scenario themselves. Too often, history is written by those who have only read and researched the issues, remaining distant and objective to get all the facts straight. While there is honor in this approach, one cannot experience the horror of war, the thrill of victory, orRead MoreEarly Elementary Students Word Knowledge2021 Words   |  9 Pagesis, â€Å"Vocabulary is an increasingly important predictor of reading comprehension in higher grades. It is a strong predictor of fourth grade reading achievement and the main predictor by seventh or eighth grade. By the middle elementary grades, 95% of kids can read more words than they can understand. From third grade on the main limiting factor for the majority of children is vocabulary, not reading mechanics† (Kame’enui Baumann, 2012, p. 34). While the relationship between vocabulary and reading

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Abusive marketing strategies - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2790 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Cause and effect essay Topics: Act Essay Did you like this example? Brief : 193232 Delivery Date : 26/02/2007 Title: Alpha, a large German firm, is the leading provider in the EU of VCMP tuning box.. VCMP tuning box is essential for the operation of video and satellite phones. Alpha has a market share in the EU of 58%. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Abusive marketing strategies" essay for you Create order It has few competitors. The largest among them holds a market share of 15%. VCMP tuning box requires substantial research and development as well as a significant amount of know-how. Alpha has invested a lot of money on it in the last five years. VMCP tuning box cannot be performed without a spare tool known in the sector as the link. Alpha produces its own version of this tool, Key, which has proved to be much more reliable than those tools produced by Alphas competitors. Alpha sells Key to a variety of customers. The formula of Key is protected by patents in the majority of the Member states on the EU. Key tool is compatible only with VCMP tuning box.. Beta, a UK firm and one of Alphas competitors, has come to learn about the following behaviour on the part of Alpha: a) Alpha refuses to provide VCMP tuning boxes to customers who purchase the link from another source b) Alpha reduces its prices to customers which Alpha suspects are about to switch to obtain tuning boxes from other competitors c) Alpha enjoys a market share of 98% in Spain, where it has developed a very sophisticated distribution network. Alpha denies access to its distribution network by its competitors.. d) Alpha offers substantial discounts to French customers if they exceed the number of Key tools purchased in the preceding year. Advise Alpha whether any of its arrangements might infringe Article 82 EC Treaty. What further information would you require from Alpha? ANSWER Alpha can be advised that Article 82 of the Treaty of Rome[1] controls the unilateral conduct of firms which have an economically powerful or so-called dominant position in the markets in which they participate. Article 82 provides that:[2] à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market or in a substantial part of it shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market in so far as it may affect trade between Member States.. Such a buse may, in particular, consist in a) directly or indirectly imposing unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair trading conditions; b) limiting production, markets or technical development to the prejudice of consumers; c) applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; d) making the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Alpha should note that dominance is not unlawful per se under Article 82. However, business that are found to be in a dominant position within at least a substantial part of the Single Market may contravene Article 82 if they are deemed to abuse their market power so as to obtain exorbitant profits or a competitive advantage of some kind. In order to consider Alphaà ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s potential liability under Article 82 it is first necessary to define the relevant market that will be considered by the European Commission and ultimately the Court of Justice. The relevant market is comprised of two aspects: the relevant product market and the relevant geographic market. The relevant product market in this case will be defined as the market in the VCMP tuning box alone, given that the box is essential for the operation of video and satellite phones and according to the facts presented there are no alternative or substitutable products available. If any substitutable products are available these may form part of the product market. As Michelin v EC Commission[3] indicates, an Article 82 product market will be deemed to include any product which is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“equivalent to or interchangeable for the specific product being marketed by the dominant companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . It is in the Commissionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s interests to define the product market as narrowly as possible because this facilitates the task of finding dominance and Alpha should be advised that it will need to raise a strong argument to seek to expand the product market in this case. Given that the VCMP tuning box cannot readily be substituted or replaced by any alternative product, it will be treated as forming a relevant product market of its own. Europemballage Corp and Continental Can v EC Commission[4] confirms this advice. The geographic market in question will be viewed as the European Union market as a whole in relation to the first two issues under consideration (a) and (b), given that Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s behaviour in those instances is apparently the same across the EU. Often only parts of the EU market are considered in isolation but in this case given Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s huge EU-wide market share this will not be deemed necessary. In relation to part (c) the geographic market under consideration will be Spain only, given that Alpha à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s behaviour in that specific context is exclusive to that territory.. In relation to part (d) the relevant geographic market will be deemed to be the territory of France only, given that its behaviour is confined to that state. It is submitted that both France and Spain individually will be deemed substantial parts of the EU market necessary to justify the application of Article 82. There is a fairly low threshold for substantiality in this context. In Suiker Unie v Commission[5] the small states of Belgium and Luxembourg were deemed a sufficiently substantial part of the Community and in Corsica Ferries Italia Ltd v Corpo dei Piloti del Porto di Genova[6] the single port of Genoa was found to qualify.[7] Given that Alpha enjoys a massive 58 per cent market share across the entirety of the European Union there is no doubt that the company will be found to enjoy a dominant position.. In the case United Brands v Commission[8], which concerned abuse of a dominant p osition on the EEC[9] banana market by a company with a market share of 40 per cent, the Commission and the Court had no difficulty in finding dominance. Moreover, given that the remainder of the market is fragmented, with the largest of its competitors commanding a market share of only 15 per cent, Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s 58 per cent share will be viewed as even more dominant in the EU market than if it competed against one other company with a very large market share. In addition, the fact that the VCMP tuning box requires substantial research and development as well as a significant amount of know-how and that Alpha has invested a lot of money on this in the last five years, serves only to buttress the dominance enjoyed by Alpha. The huge RD start up costs present a formidable barrier to entry for potential new competitors and this factor was taken into account in cases such as Tetra Pak Rausing SA (II) v Commission[10]. In summary of the above it is possible to advise Alpha that it will be deemed dominant in all four relevant product markets that will be isolated in order to evaluate its behaviour identified in parts (a) to (d). These specific instances of conduct will now be examined on that basis. a) Alpha refuses to provide VCMP tuning boxes to customers who purchase the link from another source It is noted that Alpha produces its own version of this tool, Key, and that the Key has proved to be much more reliable than those tools produced by Alphas competitors. However, Alpha must be advised that this conduct is highly likely to be viewed as anti-competitive and in contravention of Article 82 EC by both the Commission and the European Court of Justice. Article 82 provides the following express example of anti-competitive abuse: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“d) making the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subje ct of such contracts.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  It is therefore prima facie unlawful to make the conclusion of a contract to provide VCMP tuning boxes subject to a contract to purchase the Key. It is of no relevance that the Key is more reliable than its competitorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ links. The Commission will argue that such trading behaviour is unnecessary and that the Key should be allowed to assert its natural superiority while leaving customers free to choose. The economic freedom of consumers is jealously and strictly guarded in the Single Market.[11] Alpha can be advised that its behaviour in this context will be viewed as an attempt to force so-called tying-in agreements on its customers. Such agreements tie the purchase of certain goods to the purchase of other goods. It is considered blatant abuse of Article 82. The case Hoffman La Roche v Commission[12] saw such tying-in agreements heavily penalised and the case Boosey Hawkes[13] saw refusals to supply goods fined. There appe ars to be no objective justification for Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s behaviour in this regard and trade between member states is certainly being affected given the EU-wide scope of this practice. In conclusion, Alpha is liable to be sanctioned by the Commission for this behaviour and that sanction is most likely to be upheld by the Court. b) Alpha reduces its prices to customers which Alpha suspects are about to switch to obtain tuning boxes from other competitors Alpha can be advised that Article 82 sets down the following example of abusive activity: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“c) applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage;à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  If Alpha is reducing its prices to certain customers it fears are about to move their business then it is subjecting its other more loyal customers to a competitive disadvantage, because they are still required to pay a higher price. This form of price d iscrimination is unacceptable anti-competitive conduct and will be penalised by the Commission.. Moreover this strategy may be treated as predatory pricing by the Commission.. Predatory pricing occurs where a dominant undertaking temporarily reduces its prices to an uneconomic level, possibly below cost price, in order to undercut its rivals and prevent an increase in the competition it faces. Typically once the rival has been deterred from the market and customer loyalty is secured prices are raised again and the company can return to reaping de facto monopoly profits by increasing its prices again. The Commission has sanctioned predatory pricing practices in numerous cases, such as AKZO Chemie BV v Commission[14] and Alpha must be advised that it is also liable to be penalised for this policy. Furthermore, looking at the scenario from the perspective that this reduction in price strategy could be viewed as a system of loyalty rebates, the Commission will most likely come to the same conclusion and sanction Alpha. Loyalty rebates have been found to create discriminatory pricing and penalised in cases including Hoffman La Roche v Commission[15] c) Alpha enjoys a market share of 98% in Spain, where it has developed a very sophisticated distribution network. Alpha denies access to its distribution network by its competitors.. Alpha has almost total dominance and a rare pure monopoly in the Spanish market. The European Commission may conclude that the sophisticated distribution network it has managed to establish as a consequence of this dominance should be treated as what is known as an à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“essential facilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . The doctrine of essential facilities provides that where a dominant undertaking owns or controls a facility that is necessary to conduct a business, but which could not practically be reproduced by a competing undertaking or a potentially competing undertaking, the dominant undertaking may be obliged, in the absence of o bjective justification, to make the facility available to the competitor on reasonable terms. This doctrine has typically been applied in the case of permitting access to sea ports on fair terms, for example by ferry operators which obviously require such access in order to carry out their business, and a case in point is B I Line plc v Sealink[16]. In the B I Line case the dominant operator of the essential facility was ordered to allow a competitor access to the port in question, and that access was required to be provided on fair and reasonable terms so as to facilitate fully competitive activity. Alpha can be advised that this situation may be deemed analogous to its monopolistic distribution network, without access to which competitors may be unable to enter the Spanish market and trade profitably. Alpha can attempt to defend its position and reserve its exclusive right to use the network by raising an objective justification.[17] The company could argue that if it were forced to open up its distribution network to competitors it would be less inclined to make the necessary investments to maintain its sophistication, efficiency and integrity given that other firms will be benefiting from that investment. Further particulars are sought on this issue before concrete advice can be offered. Alpha must also be advised that this scenario could be viewed as a refusal to supply a service.. This has been considered abusive activity in such cases as Belgian Telemarketing[18]. Such an activity will in particular be held to infringe Article 82 where supply is essential to the trade or where refusal prevents the introduction of new products in demand as in the case Tiercƒ © Ladbroke v Commission.[19] d) Alpha offers substantial discounts to French customers if they exceed the number of Key tools purchased in the preceding year. Alpha can be advised that Article 82 expressly states that abusive activity includes: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“c ) applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage;à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  This practice of discriminatory pricing is prima facie unlawful given that customers who do not exceed former purchasing levels are penalised in equivalent transactions in relation to customers that have met Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s conditions. It is conceivably possible that Alpha could objectively justify this strategy as rewarding improved performance or on grounds of passing on economies of scale, but further particulars must be sought as to Alphaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s full commercial justification for this pricing policy.. Moreover, it is noted that these discounts are apparently only available to French customers.. Further particulars are sought on this matter, because if customers in other member states are denied this discount then regardless of any argument to objectively justify the practice in France it will almost c ertainly be deemed unlawful if it is not applied uniformly across the EU.[20] Differential pricing strategies based on national markets were rejected as abusive in, for example, United Brands v Commission[21]. In Summary This paper has provided specific advice to Alpha as to the Article 82 EC enforcement mechanism and its application to these facts. Abusive and potentially abusive conduct has been identified under the specified heads of activity and further information has been requested on various points. THE END EXACT WORD COUNT FOR ANSWER ONLY : 1987 (excluding footnotes) GLOBAL DOCUMENT WORD COUNT : 2615 NB. The full text cite of Article 82 is provided for information purposes only and has not been included in the answer word count for this paper. BIBLIOGRAPHY Consolidated version of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community: EC Legislation 2005-2006, Foster (2005) Blackstoneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Statutes Law of the European Union, Kent, P., (2001) Longman Textbook on EC Law, Steiner and Woods, (1998) Blackstone Publishing EU Law- Text Cases and Materials, Craig and de Burca, (2003), Oxford University Press Recent Guidance on Fining Policy, Spink, P., [1999] European Competition Law Review, 101-108. Cases as footnoted, checked and verified against original law reports. 1 [1] Consolidated version of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community: EC Legislation 2005-2006, Foster (2005) Blackstones Statutes: [2] The text of Article 82 is provided for information purposes only and is not included in the word count. [3] Case 322/81 [1983] ECR 3461. [4] Case 6/72 [1973] ECR 215. [5] Cases 40/73 [1976] 1 CMLR 295. [6] Case 18/93 [1994] ECR I-1783. [7] For further comment see: Law of the European Union, Kent, P., (2001) Longman, page 254. [8] Case 27/76 [1978] ECR 207. [9] The European Economic Community as it then was, prior to the establishment of the EC and the Single Market. [10] T-51/89 [1991] 4 CMLR 334. [11] For an insightful general overview see: Textbook on EC Law, Steiner and Woods, (1998) Blackstone, page 236. [12] Case 85/76, [1979] ECR 461. [13] OJ 1987 L286/36. [14] Case 62/86, [1987] 1 CMLR 225. [15] Case 85/76, [1979] ECR 461. [16] [1992] 5 CMLR 255. [17] There is no derogation provision in Article 82 such as is provided in Article 81 by Article 81(3). The concept of objective justification is the case law alternative available under Article 82. See for an overview: EU Law- Text Cases and Materials, Craig and de Burca, (2003), Oxford University Press. [18] Case 311/84 [1986] 2 CLRR 588. [19] Case T-504/93 [1997] ECR II-923. [20] See for specific guidance: Recent Guidance on Fining Policy, Spink, P., [1999] European Competition Law Review, 101-108, p.106. [21] C27/76 [1978] ECR 207.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Necessity of Autonomy (Free Will) in Society Essays

The Necessity of Autonomy (Free Will) in Society â€Å"Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing.† John Stuart Mill explicitly describes the necessity of autonomy or free will in society to insure the happiness of all. From this perspective one can recognize that autonomy should not only be unconditionally allowed, but also as an aspect of man that was developed along with the ability to reason. In accordance with the natural evolution of man as a rationale being, to limit one’s autonomy would be to deny the very ability that has†¦show more content†¦However, this idea does not prove to give support to the negation of importance of autonomy. In fact, because the individual does interact with the environment, the need for individual freedom in making choices because inherent. In addition, Mill suppor ted the belief that, â€Å"Each is the proper guardian of his own heath, whether bodily or mental and spiritual.† Therefore, by limiting autonomy the assumption would have to be made that the individual no longer has the ability to be the guardian of themselves. This concept can not be universally applied; independent of the structure of government in a particular society, because of the agreement that man is a rational being. With the negation of autonomy, comes the negation of reason and responsibility of man. Despite any argument for the need for control over society through limitations of autonomy, the natural instincts to choose freely in daily life will still persist. In contrast, Skinner felt that by not limiting mankind’s autonomy, all could be then held accountable for their actions and consequently punished. â€Å"That view...must be re-examined when a scientific analysis reveals unsuspected controlling relations between behavior and environment.† Without attempting to disprove the interaction between man and his environment, Skinner’s argument can still be proved to be incorrect when attempting to limit man’s autonomy. Although in a given situation a person may come toShow MoreRelatedThe Censorship of Pornography1581 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Censorship of Pornography: Censorship is vital and takes place on a daily basis in the modern society even in nations that state their respect and maintenance of the freedom of speech. For instance, there are several regulations that restrict broadcasters in the kind of programmes to be transmitted as specific times of the day. The other ways with which censorship happens every day is through the laws that forbid people from expressing themselves publicly toward particular political or ethnicRead MoreDifferences Between Virginia Woolf And A Room Of Ones Own And The Yellow Wallpaper792 Words   |  4 PagesGilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† explore a woman’s access to personal and physical space. Woolf stresses the importance of seclusion, while Gilman challenges the confinements of enforced isolation. The rooms in both stories represent women’s lack of autonomy and emotional and economic freedom. Thematically Woolf and Gilman speak to the infantilizing of women. Both of these authors use physical space as a metaphor for the ways that women were controlled and confined within the female domain. Men’s controlRead MoreEssay about Matewan1256 Words   |  6 Pagesthis seemingly American Township reveals itself as the site of feudal hardship for its citizens. 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Firstly, both strands of Liberalism believe in the necessity of some kind of a state, since life without a state, as Thomas Hobbes stated, would be ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’. Both views consider the existence of a state to be essential in order to protect individual rights. Since liberalsRead MoreThe Similarities Between Classical and Modern Liberalism Are Greater Than the Differences1725 Words   |  7 Pagesmore evident when analysing this ideology. Some will say that both classical and modern liberalists possess a number of parallel approaches towards this political theory and its key concepts. Firstly, both strands of Liberalism believe in the necessity of some kind of a state, since life without a state, as Thomas Hobbes stated, would be ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’. Both views consider the existence of a state to be essential in order to protect individual rights. Since liberalsRead MoreThe Role Of Art On The Aesthetic Education Of Man By Frederik Schiller1508 Words   |  7 Pagesof the drives, placing the main focus on the role and importance of the play-drive in human life, to finally discuss the features in Schiller’s theory of play that help elucidate the role of art in human life. According to Schiller, men in modern society experiment a conflict between the cultivation of individual talent and the welfare of their community as a single being. This conflict results in an alienation of the being and its consequent fragmentation. Taking this into account, Schiller statesRead MoreThomas Hobbes and Modern Liberalism1505 Words   |  7 Pageson individualism, along with his agreeance and acceptance of intellectual and moral autonomy it is easy to understand why many modern liberals would agree with Hobbes’s political philosophy. However, Thomas Hobbes does not support the concept of a democratic government, rather he supported the notion of a absolutist government up until his death. Special attention must be given to Hobbes’s denial that autonomy can be thought of, or conceived as, a form of self-government. It is important to takeRead More The Use of Symbols in Adrienne Richs Poem, Aunt Jennifers Tigers818 Words   |  4 Pagestheir rights of lib erty at a time when many people started to conform to established norms. He voiced his opinions about the loss of freedom and invited society to realize that they were relinquishing their rights. Years later, his views still had an impact on citizens. Adrienne Rich, a poet of the mid-1900s, also found her autonomy a necessity in life. She wrote a poem in 1951 called Aunt Jennifers Tigers, which exhibited her opinions about living a life of reliance on others. The poem illustrates

Night Creature Blue Moon Chapter 41 Free Essays

I sat next to Zee for quite awhile. No one bothered me. She’d been my best friend. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Blue Moon Chapter 41 or any similar topic only for you Order Now My only friend. And I had loved her. I didn’t trust many people, but she had been one of them. Look where that had gotten me. â€Å"Jessie?† I glanced up. Mandenauer and Will hovered over me. There wasn’t a wolf in sight. â€Å"I’ve called my team,† Mandenauer said. â€Å"They’ll be here within the hour.† â€Å"Your team?† â€Å"We have to do something about this, yes?† He indicated the empty clearing. â€Å"What’s this?† He sighed. â€Å"Jessie, the wolves ran off when Zelda died.† â€Å"Won’t they be cured now that she’s dead?† â€Å"There is no cure but the silver.† â€Å"Oh.† I saw what he was getting at. â€Å"How are you going to figure out who’s a werewolf?† â€Å"A few of them I know. Miss Cherry, for instance. Karen Larson.† I shook my head. â€Å"I saw Karen get her brains blown out.† â€Å"With lead. She walked out of that morgue, and her principal, too.† â€Å"Clyde shot her,† I insisted. â€Å"Exactly. He knew better than to shoot one of his own with silver.† The conspiracies just kept on coming. Mandenauer leaned over and removed the totem from Zee’s neck. He held the thing aloft. The icon no longer glowed with evil, otherworldly light. It was a black stone, nothing more. â€Å"Elise will want to study this.† He pocketed the totem. Picking up Zee’s torn trousers, he glanced at Will. â€Å"Take Jessie home.† â€Å"No, wait. I’m okay.† I shoved away Will’s helping hand. â€Å"I don’t understand. Why did she die? She said she was invincible.† â€Å"That is what they all say, but I have never found it to be true.† Mandenauer withdrew a creased sheet of paper from Zee’s pocket. His eyes moved back and forth rapidly as he read it. Then he lifted his head and held the paper out to me. I crossed the short distance and took the missing page from Will’s book of ceremonies. Quickly I scanned the contents. There was nothing there I didn’t already know, except for one last thing. â€Å"As the blood of the one who loves gives life to the wolf god, only by that person’s hand can the god be destroyed.† I let the paper flutter to the ground. â€Å"She died because I shot her.† â€Å"Yes.† I wasn’t sure how I felt about that. â€Å"Go home, Jessie. Sleep. We will talk tomorrow.† â€Å"Won’t you be halfway across Canada chasing wolves by then?† â€Å"Not yet.† He nodded to Will. This time when Ca-dotte put his arm around me I let him. I awoke to the sunshine and my own bed. I didn’t remember how I’d gotten there. Will’s car had been nearby; Zee had made him drive. I’d climbed into the passenger seat, and I must have fallen asleep or passed out, because the last thing I did remember was driving through the darkened forest in the direction of the highway. I was alone and wearing nothing but my underwear. Not only had Cadotte carried me upstairs; he’d undressed me. Again. I took a shower, made some coffee. He’d left the note in the kitchen. If you ever need me, you know where to find me. Will. What was that supposed to mean? My mind tumbled back to last night. He’d been angry and hurt. I’d been a little preoccupied since. No time to discuss that anger. What did he want from me? Could I give him what he needed? I’d managed to use the L-word, but I didn’t know if I was capable of actually loving someone. Will still scared me more than the werewolves had. With him I had no control over myself. I gave him everything; I held nothing back. I wasn’t sure if I liked that in me. The doorbell rang. I didn’t realize how hopeful I’d been until the sight of Mandenauer in the hallway made me sigh with disappointment. â€Å"Come on in.† I got him coffee. We sat at the kitchen table. â€Å"Any news?† â€Å"We found a few.† I opened my mouth, then shut it again. I didn’t want to know the details. At least not right now. â€Å"The rest have scattered. My Jager-Suchers will disperse. We will hunt them down.† â€Å"I’m sorry.† I rubbed at the ache in my chest, the one that bore Zee’s name and probably always would. â€Å"I froze last night. You could have gotten them all and none of this would be necessary.† â€Å"You think this is your fault?† He appeared genuinely surprised as he shook his head. â€Å"No. The fault is mine. I was more careless than usual. My age, perhaps. A certain arrogance.† He sighed. â€Å"Which is why I am here this morning. I wish for you to become one of us.† â€Å"A Jaeger-Sucher?† â€Å"Yes. I must cut back on my field time. Not only because I appear to have lost my edge.† His shoulders slumped. â€Å"But there is so much more administrative work to do now.† â€Å"Now?† â€Å"The werewolf army Zelda created has increased the wolves a hundredfold. They will spread, as will the virus within them.† Hell. I hadn’t thought of that. Mandenauer had been hunting and searching since WWII, and now there were more wolves instead of less. No wonder he was depressed. â€Å"I have begun your training. With a little more work, you could do us proud. You would enjoy being a hunter-searcher. We make up our own rules as we go along.† I’d always liked rules, but in the last week and a half all I’d done was break them. Could I ever go back to the way things had been? Obviously Mandenauer didn’t think so. I got up and walked to the window. The sun was hot and strong. I couldn’t believe how bright and cheery the world appeared. How could that be after all that had happened in Miniwa? â€Å"Does everyone in town know what went on here?† â€Å"Hardly.† I turned. â€Å"How can we explain Zee and Clyde being gone – just like that?† â€Å"I have an entire division that deals with explaining disappearances. You need not trouble yourself over it.† I turned back to the sunshine. A secret society sanctioned by the government. Disappearances explained away by covert operatives. People who turned furry beneath the light of the moon. Little old ladies who wanted to be gods. And a whole host of other things I had yet to discover. I had never liked woo-woo. If there was another world out there not rooted in a reality I understood, then the safe, rational universe I cherished crumbled. I liked things to make sense, because so little did. But refusing to believe in the unbelievable didn’t make it disappear. Instead it only got stronger. I didn’t think I could stay here and continue to pretend Miniwa was safe. I couldn’t write traffic tickets and break up bar fights when out there werewolves roamed free. A flash at the edge of the woods caught my attention. Something white bobbing along, coming closer and closer. I slid the glass door open and stepped outside, but the movement was gone. â€Å"It’s Cadotte,† Mandenauer said from right behind me. Since I’d been thinking, hoping, the same thing, the ache in my chest lightened as I leaned over the railing. â€Å"If you decide to be a Jdger-Sucher you cannot have such an attachment.† It took me a moment to realize he hadn’t been referring to the white flash in the woods but to Cadotte in general. â€Å"Jager-Suchers must hunt supernatural evil, things that kill horribly. We cannot allow anyone to be used against us. Or hurt because of us. Do you understand what I’m saying?† I understood. I had to choose. Will or the job. In the past it would have been an easy decision. Today, not so much. As strongly as I felt about chasing werewolves, I felt more strongly about Will. I didn’t want to go back to the life I’d lived before he’d come into it. I didn’t think that I could. I needed him to be whole. The woman I’d become once I knew William Cadotte was the woman I wanted to be. I turned away from the woods. â€Å"Thanks for the offer, but I’ll have to chose Cadotte.† He blinked. â€Å"You what?† â€Å"You heard me.† â€Å"But†¦ but, Jessie. The world is being overrun.† â€Å"And I’m real sorry about that. But I love him. I never thought I’d feel that way about someone or have someone feel the same about me. I’m not giving that up. Not even to save the world.† He scowled and heaved a long, aggrieved sigh. â€Å"It has been nice working with you. You would have made a stellar addition to my team.† He shook my hand, bowed over it with stiff formality, managed to refrain from clicking his heels; then with a final nod, Edward Mandenauer left the building. â€Å"You tossed the world to the wolves for me?† I shrieked and spun around. Cadotte stood on my balcony. â€Å"I hate it when you do that!† â€Å"I should make more noise when I sneak up on you?† â€Å"Damn straight,† I grumbled, rubbing at my sternum, where my heart thudded and raced. His ear had a Band-Aid; his arm was wrapped in gauze. One eye was nearly swollen shut. He’d never looked better to me. Snaking his good arm around my waist, he yanked me against his body and kissed me – for a good long while. When he lifted his head, my eyes were heavy, but my heart still raced. He nuzzled my temple, kissed my hair. â€Å"No one ever gave up anything for me before.† â€Å"Yeah? Well, don’t let it go to your head, Slick.† â€Å"I doubt you’ll let me.† We stood there in each other’s arms. I held on tight. I didn’t want to let him go – ever. â€Å"What are you doing here? Your note said I was supposed to come to you.† â€Å"I was afraid you wouldn’t.† â€Å"You were wrong.† Will took my hand and led me into the apartment. I figured we’d head straight for the bedroom, but he surprised me by sitting on the couch and pulling me into his lap. â€Å"Tell me,† he whispered. I almost asked, â€Å"What?† except I knew. â€Å"I need you, Will. But – â€Å" â€Å"No buts. Just let me wallow in that awhile, hmm?† I shook my head. If we were going to do this, and it appeared as if we were, I wasn’t going to start with a lie. He had to know. â€Å"I’ve never loved anyone before,† I admitted. â€Å"I’m not sure I know how.† â€Å"Me, neither. We can learn together.† He was annoy-ingly cheerful. I didn’t think he was taking my doubts very seriously. â€Å"I don’t know if I can be what you need.† â€Å"You already are.† My belly went all warm and mushy. God, he was good at this. â€Å"I – â€Å" Will put his hand over my mouth and the doubts lay on my tongue unvoiced. â€Å"Jessie, I love you. I need you. I chose you. Do you feel the same way?† I looked into my heart, my head, my past, then I looked at him, and I saw my future, I kissed his palm, and his hand fell away from my mouth. â€Å"Yes,† I whispered. â€Å"Then that’s all I need.† Later, much later, as we lay in my bed and watched the sun dance on the ceiling, my phone rang. I ignored it, letting the machine pick up. Mandenauer’s voice filled the room. â€Å"Okay, Jessie, you can have Cadotte and the job. I suspect he can take care of himself anyway. In fact, ask him if he’d be interested in working with my research division. Then report to my cabin tomorrow morning.† The phone clicked off. I cuddled closer to Will’s side. â€Å"Well?† I asked. â€Å"What do you think?† â€Å"I am soon to be unemployed.† I twisted my head so I could see his face. â€Å"Why?† â€Å"Summer school doesn’t last forever.† â€Å"Interested in Mandenauer’s offer?† I held my breath. I wanted that job, but I wanted Will more. â€Å"Sure. What the hell?† I couldn’t believe my luck. I got to save the world and get the guy. Hey, not every girl finds a love that comes along once in a blue moon. How to cite Night Creature: Blue Moon Chapter 41, Essay examples

Benefits of healthy eating and exercise Essay Example For Students

Benefits of healthy eating and exercise Essay Cardiovascular disease is known to be the leading cause of death. One would ponder upon the main cause of such a disease. When it comes to the risk factors, the two main causes of cardiovascular disease are lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. â€Å"You are what you eat† is a common phrase, which is used to emphasize the significance of a healthy diet as key to a better health. For instance, if an individual consumes unhealthy meals on a daily basis, he or she would accumulate fat in their body and be unhealthy. Exercising and consuming healthy foods daily not only improve the health of an individual, but also extend his or her life span. The main benefits of exercising and nutrition include weight control, increased energy, better health, better mood, and stronger bones. A combination of healthy eating and exercising play a significant role in controlling in an individuals own weight. When exercising, one is not only able to prevent excess weight gains, but also maintain weight loss. People tend to gain weight when they burn fewer calories than the food they consume as well as including the calories that are burned during physical activity. An individual is able to control their own weight simply by consuming nutrient dense foods and low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and protein. According to experts, at least 150 minutes to vigorous activity is needed for one to maintain their weight. For those who do not have the time to or cannot do an actual workout can lose weight by walking up the stairs instead of using the elevator. Thus, incorporating physical activity and healthy eating greatly play a major role in weight control. In addition, when an individual consumes healthy food. .recipes/features/how-food-affects-your-moods>. 3. Warner, Jennifer. Exercise Fights Fatigue, Boosts Energy. WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. . 4. How Food Affects Your Sleep. N.p. , n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2013.>. 5. Komaroff, A.. N.p.. Web. 1 Dec 2013.>. 6. You Are What You Eat: How Food Affects Your Mood. DUJS Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. . 7. Dietary Sodium, Heart Disease and Stroke-Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. N.p., n. d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. com/site/c.ikI>.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Marlowes biographers often portray him as a dangerously over“ambitious individual Essay Example For Students

Marlowes biographers often portray him as a dangerously overâ€Å"ambitious individual Essay Christopher Marlowe lived during the Renaissance period in 16th century England. Although this was a time of change, the Elizabethans still had fixed moral values. The Chain of Being, a concept inherited from the Middle Ages, can be described as a hierarchy of society, with the monarch at the top and the lowliest peasants at the bottom. Below people were animals, plants and rocks. During the Elizabethan era, dangerous ambition would probably involve trying to break the Chain of Being and striving to increase ones social status. It was believed to be necessary to accept ones place in the chain, as to disrupt it and overcome the set order of society could mean chaos would follow. Faustus was an exceedingly ambitious man, even in relation to what is considered to be ambitious by people in todays society. In the prologue, The Chorus sums up Faustus background and early life, emphasizing his ordinary background and academic success. It seems that Faustus intellect made him become proud and this fired up his ambition. When Marlowe presents Faustus in scene 1, Faustus methodically shuns great authors and classically intellectual subjects, such as medicine and law because they hold little attraction to him, line 11 A greater subject fitteth Faustus wit. The above quote shows how Faustus elevates himself above taking up an intellectual pursuit that would be highly esteemed by the Elizabethans. Another sign that Faustus holds himself in high regard is that he refers to himself in the third person, also shown in the above quote. Faustus discusses beliefs that he will no longer hold and describes what he wants to achieve in his opening soliloquy. Faustus may be seen as blasphemous in the opening speech, implying that he would only be a doctor if he could be equal to God, lines24-6 Couldst thou make men live eternally Or, being dead raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteemed. This is made more obvious when Faustus lastly says, line 62 A sound magician is a mighty god. Marlowe portrays Faustus as being over-ambitious by his turning to magic, which is a much more sinister and much less conventional pursuit than others that he had been discussing previously. Faustus hopes that magic will make him omnipotent and god-like. There is little evidence to suggest that Marlowe himself wanted power over others, but his rise in society from a shoemakers son to a scholar at Cambridge University and later, a spy, was extremely rare at the time. Marlowe did not lead a normal Elizabethan life; in fact, one could say that it was similar to fiction. The over-ambitious part of Marlowes personality is reflected in Faustus because it seems Marlowe must have wanted success in his life, and to over-reach his set path in life. It becomes clearer as the play continues that Faustus is a dangerously ambitious person when in scene 3 he discusses the deal with a devil, Mephastophilis, concerning the selling of his soul to the Devil in return for earthly power. When Faustus makes the contract, it seems as if he is not thinking ahead as his attitude is carefree. He possibly does not believe in Hell, or that he has a soul, or about the reality of the bargain. His attitude at this point can be summed up by the following phrase Scene 4, lines 103-4, If I had as many souls as there be stars, Id give them all for Mephastophilis. Faustus ambition for power and lack of foresight are what doom him later on in play. .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .postImageUrl , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:hover , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:visited , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:active { border:0!important; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:active , .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4a81015808c3b304f89ade5ac4851d3c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Who is to blame in The ?rucible? EssayArguably, ambition can be said to have caused the downfall of Marlowe himself. His violent murder in a London tavern in 1593 was mysterious and historians often question possible motives for killing Marlowe; his drive to succeed may have made other people envious and resentful. In Dr. Faustus, other characters are probably envious of Faustus too. In one of the comic scenes, scene 6, we learn that Robin and Rafe have stolen one of Faustus books and plan to use it to seduce a woman. They must have been jealous of Faustus power and his magical aptitude; however it is not the case that he is murdered by these characters later on in the play. Faustus is ambitious and enjoys his newfound power until the end of the play, despite being warned of the reality of his empty bargain by the Old Man and by the Good Angel throughout the play. The Old Man says in scene 12 lines 107-9, Ambitious fiends, see how the heavens smiles At your repulse, and laughs your state to scorn. Hence hell, for hence I fly unto God. This moment foreshadows Faustus lines at the end of the play, where, horrified, he must face the Devil and Hell. Faustus ambition makes him a more human character despite him his selling his soul to the Devil, which may make him more difficult for the audience to relate to because of the extraordinary situation. His intellect sometimes creates doubts in his mind about the bargain that he has made, but his ambition overrides his conscience until the very end. This is shown by the Good and Evil Angels, who appear in scenes 1 and 5. They are binary opposites and in my view are present to put another side to Faustus personality à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" a conscience. The Good Angel tries to motivate Faustus to repent by concentrating on Gods anger. However the Evil Angel contradicts the Good Angel, Scene 5 lines 253-6 EVIL ANGEL: Too late. GOOD ANGEL: Never too late, if Faustus can repent. EVIL ANGEL: If thou repent, devils shall tear thee in pieces. GOOD ANGEL: Repent, and they shall never rase thy skin. The Good and Evil Angels stichomythic dialogue is not too realistic and shows how torn Faustus is between the two sides. He is easily swayed and believes the angel that speaks last, but it is interesting to bear in mind that despite the warnings, his ambition stays with him to the end and leads to his downfall. Marlowe portrays Faustus ambition as dangerous; it was the cause of his demise. Perhaps Marlowe used the theme of over-ambition as a warning to the audience, who would be likely to be wary of ambition it was looked down on as a negative personality trait in Christian England. Ideas around at the time such as The Chain of Being reinforced religious opinion into peoples everyday lives and morality plays popular from the early 1400s to the 1580s were used to strengthen peoples Christian principles, as Dr. Faustus also does by discouraging ambition. Marlowe reflects ambition in the character of Faustus to deter the audience from being ambitious, and over-reaching their place in the Chain of Being. However, if Marlowe chose to be dangerously over-ambitious and regarded himself as this, it is likely that he may have written Dr. Faustus differently, not viewing ambition in such a negative way. Whatever Marlowes view on ambition was, it is not made clear in the play, through Faustus or other characters. Certain aspects of his personality are indeed reflected in Faustus, which make reading the play and exploring Faustus as a character even more intriguing.